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Summary of Why Nations Fail

    SariyyaBhar citeretfor 2 år siden
    underdevelopment is caused by political institutions and not by geography, climate, or other cultural factors. Elites in underdeveloped countries deliberately plunder their people and keep them impoverished.
    ngomeniukhar citeretfor 2 måneder siden
    conclude that underdevelopment is caused by political institutions and not by geography, climate, or other cultural factors
    Настя Коваленкоhar citeretsidste år
    Political institutions are often shaped by historical contingencies.
    Alina Muratovahar citeretsidste år
    Political institutions are often shaped by historical contingencies.
    Alina Muratovahar citeretsidste år
    hus, as England moved towards greater freedom, Eastern Europe moved towards an ever more extractive economy based on the coerced labor of serfs.
    Alina Muratovahar citeretsidste år
    As the status quo is disrupted, new populations will gain access to different economic opportunities and will be able to challenge elite power hierarchies.
    Alina Muratovahar citeretsidste år
    tighten their grip on resources
    Alina Muratovahar citeretsidste år
    paved the way for
    Alina Muratovahar citeretsidste år
    greater guarantees of property rights and receive more of the fruits of their own labor.
    Alina Muratovahar citeretsidste år
    The change in the laws encouraged innovation and industry
    SariyyaBhar citeretfor 2 år siden
    authors ignore the extent to which global capitalism creates and depends upon inequality.
    SariyyaBhar citeretfor 2 år siden
    possibility that economic success in one democratic nation may be linked to the undemocratic exploitation of another is never examined.
    SariyyaBhar citeretfor 2 år siden
    Sustainable development is linked to virtue, which means that to the extent nations are successful, they are presented as virtuous
    SariyyaBhar citeretfor 2 år siden
    There are academic debates about whether geography, culture, or political institutions cause differences in development. Acemoglu and Robinson argue strongly for the importance of the last of these.
    SariyyaBhar citeretfor 2 år siden
    But since countries are underdeveloped because of extractive political institutions, these institutions will ignore or sideline new mechanisms of accountability that threaten their power or reduce their ability to plunder. Similarly, extractive governments will simply expropriate foreign aid for elites.
    SariyyaBhar citeretfor 2 år siden
    China’s economic growth did, in fact, appear to be weakening. The growth rate in 2015 was 6.9 percent, the lowest in China in 25 years
    SariyyaBhar citeretfor 2 år siden
    Authoritarian extractive governments can sometimes encourage growth by moving resources into more productive sectors of the economy. The Soviet Union achieved impressive growth through centralized industrialization which encouraged the growth of industry and the military in the decades before 1970. However, an extractive government ultimately stifles innovation and siphons resources away from productive activities.
    SariyyaBhar citeretfor 2 år siden
    violence and conflict are among the major causes of poverty worldwide. The 2011 World Development Report argued that violence traps many countries in inescapable cycles of poverty.
    SariyyaBhar citeretfor 2 år siden
    When pluralist institutions are established, they tend to perpetuate and reinforce themselves in a virtuous cycle. This is what happened in Britain after the Glorious Revolution. The establishment of pluralist institutions created a system wherein people could petition the government for more reforms. Since the government depended on assent from many people rather than from a small group of oligarchs, it became easier to slowly reform the government than to institute repressive measures. As a result, Britain moved slowly towards a true representative democracy over the course of several centuries.
    SariyyaBhar citeretfor 2 år siden
    Contrary to the Whig interpretation, freedom and democracy aren’t the inevitable result of progress. Rather, they’re the result of luck and happenstance. Democratic gains might never have happened, and, in the worst case, could be reversed if the wind shifts.
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